Rabu, 20 Februari 2008

DEVELOPMENT IN THE STUDY HADITH IN INDONESIA

By : DR.H.Ramli Abdul Wahid, MA

A. Introduction
Indonesia is biggest state populate Islam in the world. In Indonesia a lot of institute of Islam education, start from Kindergarten until College. And so do biggest Islam organization was spread throngout Nusantara. Beside that, Indonesia also own a number of moslem scholar and Islam thinker since long time hitherto. In the meantime, the study of Hadith is visible backward in comparison with order subject such as tauhid (Theology), fiqh (Islamic Law), tafsir (exegesis) and tasawuf (Islamic Mystics). Though, as one of fundamental of Islamic source generally and syariat specially. Hadith ought to take possession of the important position in Islamic studies. As second Islamic source after Alquran, Hadith not possible to be uncared. But, fact in Indonesia indicates that development in the study of Hadith in Indonesia is backward. In consequence, is backward in the study of Hadith in the middle of Islam society require to be studied. So that become the discussion in this handing out.

B. The Background of Study
The study of Hadith in Indonesia can be told still in start. This matter is visible from existence of Hadith literature, sum up all master and expert Hadith which is in the society. The lack of the study of Hadith in Indonesia is also visible of method and result of law stipulating have been done by orgnization of Islam and institutes was able to give fatwa.
In the 17th century and 18th century, about books of fiqh, tafsir, and tasawuf that using Indonesian or Malay language have a lot of circulating in Nusantara. For example, about fiqh Mir'at ath-Thullab by Abd ar-Rauf Singkil that was written in the 17th century; Hidayah 'Awwam by Sheikh of Jalal ad-Din that was written in 1719, Sabil Al-Muhtadin by Muhammad Arsyad al-Banjari that was written in 1778; about tasawuf, Kifayah al-Mutajin by Abd ar-Rauf Singkil; about tafsir, Tarjuman al-Mustafid which also was written by Abd ar-Rauf Singkil. These books represent the small example from scholarly paper of all moslem scholar in Nusantara. These scholarly paper neither show one even also about Hadith nor Ulum al-Hadith.
A book was found that entitling Kitab al-Hadith al-Musamma bi Syifa' al-Qulub was written by a moslem scholar of Aceh namely Sheikh Abdullah. But, in the reality this book neither studied about Hadith nor about Ulum al-Hadith. Its Hadith was written without sanad, without original source reference of Hadith Books, and its orientation was tasawuf. On the 14th and 15th December, 2004, writer had checked the old books and manuscripts at the Library of Ali Hasymy in Banda Ache. All kinds of article found about fiqh, tauhid, tasawuf, tafsir and nahu (grammar of Arabic), but they was not even also concerning about Hadith. Dutch Master, Kaarel Stembrink also have said that, when He had done research about Books of Religion at The Library of National in Jakarta, he had not found one even also Book of Hadith or Ulum al-Hadith from scholarly paper of moslem scholar in Indonesia. Nevertheless, as the second source of Islamic Law after Alquran, Hadith not possible to be disregarded off hand. In studying anything in aspect religion, Hadith was at least becoming the part of its discussion.

C. Focus the Study
Refering to background which explained above, hence development in the study of Hadith ought to be studied broaderly. Thereby, main problem in this handing out can be formulated as follows. How in fact development in the study of Hadith in Indonesia? This matter basically can be evaluated from relevant perpetrator with its development. Perpetrator which each other playing a part in of development in the study of Hadith in Indonesia by histories is all moslem scholar or figure of Hadith and Islam organizations.

D. Scope of Study
Discussion in this handing out limited to literature of concerning Hadith written by moslem scholar, figure of Hadith, and organizational of Islam in Indonesia and in the Indonesian language. Cause, this literature aimed at Indonesian peculiarly. As for book of Hadith or Ulum al-Hadith was written by moslem scholar of Indonesia in Arab Language do not enter in this study because book of like this is not special aimed at Indonesian. This definition also mean discussion to in handing out is not wide so that its study become the skin-deep, but focus and comprehensive.

E. Development in The Study of Hadith
Historically, the study of Hadith in Indonesia was started with the simple book, like Matn al-Arba`in an-Nawawiyah by Imam an-Nawawi and also its syarah and Bulug al-Maram by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. Concerning Ulum al-Hadith is book of Matn al-Baiquniyyah by as-Suyuthi, 'Ilm Musthalah al-Hadits by H.M. Arsyad Thalib Lubis. These Books were taught in various of Pesantren and Madrasah in Indonesia. Basically, these books were not primary source from its area and its contents even also only represent the basic knowledges about Hadith and Ulum al-Hadith. This situation take long time in Indonesia. Even, until before in the year 2000, that is way not yet a lot of changing. This matter was proved with the result of research of Azyumardi Azra to the titles of dissertation in Post Graduate Program (PPS) of the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Jakarta in the year 1997. From 109 titles of dissertation of doctor in PPS IAIN Jakarta until the year 1997 in the reality seven titles ( 6,42 %) which was concerning Hadith. Azyumardi has conclusion that the study of Hadith in Indonesia backward in its development is compared by the theology studies, fiqh, tafsir and tasawuf.
Nevertheless, the study of Hadith in Indonesia became more progress by master and new doctors graduated from the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Jakarta and the opening of Tafsir and Hadith in some Ushuluddin Faculties in the year after 1980.The Sources of Primary of Hadith and Ulum al-Hadith, like al-kutub as-sittah, Musnad Ahmad, al-Mustadrak 'ala ash-shahihain by al-Hakim, and other fundamental of Hadith Books begin to be studied; Ma'rifah 'Ulum al-Hadith by al-Hakim, at-Taqyid wa al-Idhah by al-'Iraqi, Tadrib Ar-Rawi by Imam an-Nawawi, Tahzib At-Tahzib by Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, and Tahzib al-Kamal by al-Mizzi were analyzed. In line with that, scription, thesis and dissertation of doctor even also pop out. This matter gives the fresh wind to the future of Hadith in Indonesia. Others, movement Inkarussunnah, translation of orientalist books which tend to look down the Hadith, and polemical about Hadith between Sunni and Syiah, even from one side bring the negative things, but from undeniable other; dissimilar side generate the spirit and motivation for moslem scholar and Islam expert to awaken from their dozing follow the thought of moslem scholar of fiqh and school of law without caring basic (validity) of that thought to effort clarification of authenticity of Hadiths becoming the basis for thought of all the moslem scholar of fiqh.
Development in the study of Hadith in this article is evaluated from the aspect of contribution of figure and society organization of Islam. In Indonesia there are some figures or writers assessed to give the contribution of development in the study of Hadith and ulum al-Hadith in Indonesia as according to its situation. Then, books that becoming assessment are books which are written by Indonesian because assumed to be these books aimed at Indonesian. Thereby also there are Islam organization which are considered to give the significant contribution to development in the study of Hadith in Indonesia.

F. Books and Scientific Article
Books and scientific article about Islam in Indonesia have started to pop out right now. But, if quoted the Hadith, these literatures did’nt refer to direct the primary source, but making reference to source of secondary or tertiary. May be mentioned that certain Hadith to be transmited by al-Bukhari and Muslim. However, those writers didn’t mention the number of chapter (bab) and section or volume and page; from such books of Shahih. And so do all speaker and preacher, they usually refer the Hadith to all Mukharrij (transmitter and accumulator of Hadiths), like al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud, but they found them at Islamic books, not at Shahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslimh, and Sunan Abi Dawud. More than that, all teachers of Hadith are difficult to be found that knowing the way of looking for the Hadith from the primary source. Perhaps more difficult is again found that one who able to do the research of sanad or matan by themself. If there are any one who mention to assess the certain Hadith about sahih or hasan or da’if, hence according to perception, that assessment is based by of others assessment, like assessment as-Suyuthi, at-Tirmizi, asy-Syaukani, non pursuant to its own research. show the left behind of Development in the study of Hadith in Indonesia.
Refering to situation of Hadith and ulum al-hadith in Indonesia, according to research of Azyumardi Azra to doctor dissertation in Post Graduate Program (PPS) of the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Jakarta in the year 1997 concluding that ulumul hadith tend to the "backward" its development. From 109 dissertation, only 7 ( 6,42 %) about Hadith.[1] Sum up the study of Hadith, he mentioned very far from requirement. As its impact- said, Azyumardi- most of teacher of Ulum Hadidth, they are not expert in Hadith. Meanwhile, Alquran And Hadith are fundamental source in Islamic studies and represent the lecture is obliged to the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN); start from level S1 until S3.

G. Literature of Hadith
As state which its population is the biggest moslem in the world, so, it ought to has Hadith literature adequately because it’s that position in Islamic studies is important. However, in fact that show the very concerning Hadith literature is limitation, not only Hadith lilterature but also its Ulumul Hadith. Karel Steembring confess have gathered the literature of Islam of 19th centuries in Moseum of National, Jakarta. He found a number of copy of Alquran and Islamic books written by Indonesian people, but he didn’t find Hadith literature that written by Indonesian people. Until certain boundary, this matter can be viewed as indication for lack of attention of moslem scholar in Indonesia about Hadith literatur.
And so do the Hadith literature and Ulum hadith is very finite to be found in Religion library, like library of UIN, IAIN and State/Private Institute of Islamic Studies, library of LIPIA and Istiqlal Jakarta, and library of MUI, Medan. As-Sunan Al-Kubra by al-Baihaqi, al-Mustadrak ' ala ash-Shahihain by al-Hakim, al-Mu`jam al-Kabir by ath-Thabrani, Mushannaf ' Abd Ar-Razzaq; those are only found in some libraries of IAIN, as in UIN Jakarta and library of LIPIA. Musnad Al-Firdaus by ad-Dailami seems is newly encountered in library of UIN Jakarta.
Meanwhile, Facility of Hadith CD and internet, now both help out facilitate the researcher of Hadith to know the reference of Hadith. But, use CD still very finite among people have modern education, not yet reached all moslem scholar and preachers have old education product. Even, circle have modern education nor all having ability to own the computer. And so, is not all able to use it better. In consequence, levying of Hadith literature in libraries still be required because its exploiting is broader.

H. Ulama and Scholar of Hadith
Research of Azyumardi Azra above; in fact have earned to give the limitation picture of all Hadith expert in Indonesia. Until on August, 1999 Post Graduate Program (PPS) of UIN Jakarta product have 190 doctors dissertation. From 190 the dissertation only 14 about Hadith, both about its science and about takhrij or its value research.[2] From 14 dissertation about Hadith only eight about takhrij or research assess the Hadith and one people among that researcher is Dr. Atjeng Ahmad Kusyairi, MA. have been called by a Lord return to His presence (died) in the year 1999. Before that, Prof. Dr. Syuhudi Ismail as a first doctor of Hadith in Indonesia and a very productive to write about the study of Hadith have returned to God in the year 1995.
Meanwhile, alumni that doctor of Hadith from abroud there are only four who is owned by the Indonesia, that is Dr. Sobron Efendi, MA., collegiate of University of Umm al-Qura Makkah and Dr. David Rasyid, MA., collegiate of Dar al-Ulum of University Kairo, Egypt. Dr. Shahabuddin, MA Collegiate from Al-Azhar, Kairo, and Dr. Ahmad Lutfi Fathullah, MA Collegiate from UKM, Malaysia. Dr. Sobron Efendi, MA., coincidence chosen to linger in Amuntai and joint forces with the Pilgrim Tablig and he doesn’t devoted its science in competent college to develop its science because he only serve as Chief of College al-Khalidiyah in Kalimantan. And So do, Dr. David Rasyid, MA. just only some times have time to teach in Post Graduate Program (PPS) of UIN Jakarta and now a lot of got mixed up by a political activity. Meanwhile, Dr. Shahabuddin, MA And Dr. Ahmad Lutfi Fathullah, MA Active teach in some colleges.

I. Contribution of Pigures
Among moslem scholar and ulama giving contribution to development in the study of Hadith in Indonesia are] Ahmad Surkati, Ahmad Hassan, Prof. DR. H. T.M Hasbi Ash Shiddiqiy, Prof. Drs. Fatchur Rahman, Prof, DR. Muhammad Syuhudi Ismail, and Prof. KH Ali Mustafa Yaqub, MA. They are looked into figures because their contribution in levying of Hadith literature and ulum al-hadith and also their thought in development of the study and understanding Hadith in Indonesia.
Ahmad Surkati is activator figure in the study of Hadith in Indonesia. Ahmad Surkati affirm that especial base of Islamic teaching is Alquran and Hadith. When he was asked about books which can be made by a hold, A. Surkati reply: Alquran and second of Shahih Al-Bukhari by its syarah that written by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. One who unable to comprehend the Hadith prestige/value so that be following thought of all imam mujtahid and not hence utterance of moslem scholar of fikih which instan. According to him, reference outside Alquran and Sunnah is boldness of moslem scholar which can be trusted because they are leaning its thought to second of the base.[3] Though, he hadn’t time to formulate the understanding hadith broaderly and operational, but A.Surkati’s thought can be looked into for embryo for critical study appearance to Hadith in Indonesia.
Contribution of A.Surkati’s thought about Hadith seems clearly when it is compared by a common thought of moslem scholar of Indonesia that’s time which only refer at fiqh books of Syafii. Trend of thinking style is trusting in moslem scholar Syafii. They are assumed by have mastered the Hadith. Their thought are assumed surely pursuant to Hadith so that its reader needn't check whether there is its theorem from Alquran or Hadith. Its Hadith even also needn't be tested whether sahih, hasan or daif. Meanwhile A. Sukarti call upon so that one who unable to check the Hadith follow the thought of all moslem scholar that mujtahid, not only scholar of fikih.
Ahmad Hasan is figure which dare to open the thought referredly is direct to Alquran and Hadith. According to him, Hadith daif useless even if for the fadhailul a'mal.[4] For him there is no badal haji. Cause, basis of badal haji is Shahih al-Bukhari oppose against the sentence which its meaning, "Human being do not get anything except laboured". He assess the Hadith al-Bukhari about badal haji is daif because its matan oppose against the the sentence Alquran. Agree or [not, this is a bravery from proper A.Hasan registered by history in the study of Hadith in Indonesia.
But that way, A.Hasan seems lack of appreciate the Hadith literature. He is the inclusive of diligent moslem scholar debate and polemical. But, each time its discussion require the furthermore clarification about ulum al-hadith, he always suggest to be reading book his son, Abdul Qadir Hassan. This Book concerning mushthalah Hadith with the title of ulum al-hadith composed by the three volume in Indonesian. Meanwhile, source of primary of ulum al-hadith a lot of in Arab Ianguage of like the previously. And so do in assessment Hadith he always follow the thought of all others; dissimilar moslem scholar like ash-Shan'ani al-Kahlani and asy-Syaukani. This represent the its domination insuffiency indication to study of takhrij Hadith. But his bravery open the thought about Hadith represent one of its excess motivating all moslem scholar to study the Hadith seriously.
T.M.Hasbi Ash-Shiddieqy represent the a success figure provide the Hadith literature and ulum al-hadith at the time of required. Its thought about Hadith is especially seen its attitude which dare to differ from the majority of moslem scholar in its books entitling, Pedoman Shalat, Pedoman Puasa and Pedoman Haji and Syarah Hadith as much ten title. These books are very wide its discussion, especially about understanding of moslem scholar to Hadith-Hadith law. ( Need its book?) but, its contribution is most uppermost is ready of Hadith literature and Ulum al-hadith in Indonesian. At that moment, religion college have borned, its student is a lot medium unable to read the literature of have Arab Language better. They need to aid literature which is in Indonesian, especially about Hadith and Ulum al-Hadith. T.M.Hasbi Ash-Shiddieqy very productive prepare the books that needed, Indonesia writer Is during the period still be scarce.
Fatchur Rahman develop the study of Hadith about research sanad. If T.M.Hasbi Ash-Shiddieqy not yet have time to write this matter, hence Fatchur Rahman can be considered to be a first figure explaining the way of checking sanad of Hadith complete with example of scheme sanad in its book entitling, Ikhtishar Mushthalahul Hadits. Though now have emerged a number of book about research of sanad and matan, book of Fatchur Rahman still loss not to itsrelevance to become the complement reference in the case of research sanad.
Syuhudi Ismail from since S1 elaborate the first Hadith doctor and alumnus of PPS IAIN Jakarta that researched about Hadith. He complete the method criticize the sanad opened by Fatchur Rahman with its book, Metodologi Penelitian Hadis Nabi (Methodologies Criticize the Hadith of Prophet). In this book, Syuhudi Ismail explains the criteria and stages; steps of sanad research and also criteria of matan research. To assist all researcher find the source Hadith, he also write the book of dictionary Hadith with the title is Cara Praktis Mencari hadis (Way Of Practical Look for Hadith).
Understanding of meaning Hadith in Indonesia generally still have the character of the textual. Though, They do not all Hadith have to be comprehended that way. Even in Prophet epoch himelf someone have been comprehended by contextual. Order the Prophet saw. (peace be upon him) to army sent to Bani Quraizah in order not to salat Asar except hereafter reach countrified [which is gone to have been comprehended by contextual by some of friend, so that they execute the salat Asar even if not yet to there because time Ihave almost end. They comprehend the that Hadith Rasul saw do not as stipulating of time salat but as excitement so that they dart to go to the target location.
Syuhudi Ismail is first person in Indonesia that wrote the special book about understanding Hadith by contextual with the title of Hadis NabiYang Tekstual dan Kontekstual (Hadith of Prophet which Textual and which contextual). In this book, he have understood the Hadith which is always used by all moslem scholar as theorem for may not its is woman become the president by contextual. He explains that in former epoch there was not woman which have higher education and woman is not authoritative before men. Now have a lot of woman which have higher education and authoritative before men. As according to former epoch condition, woman improper become the leader, its right now condition have changed, hence not applicable interdict again.
Others, Syuhudi Ismail also writes a number of book about Hadith which is for example Pengantar Ilmu Hadis ( 1977); Kaedah Kesahihan Sanad Hadis; Telaah kritis dan Tinjaun dengN pendekatan Ilmu Sejarah (1988); and Hadis Nabi Menurut Pembela dan pengingkarnya (1995). Its contribution as first writer in Indonesian about method of research Hadith completely, dictionary look for the Hadith, and understanding contextual to Hadith and also its assidinity and concentration study the Hadith since young to his the death, hence Syuhudi Ismail viewed as first specialist Hadith in Indonesia.
Ali Mustafa Yaqub represent the figure which is a lot of conversing and critic to orietalist. Seems, he very imbued with attitude of his teacher, Muhammad Mustafa Azami which ossify and coherent to understanding orientalist which often look down Hadith. He have written a number of books, especially about Hadith which is for example, Imam Bukhari dan Metodologi Kritik dalam Ilmu Hadis, Peran Ilmu Hadis dalam pembinaan Hukum Islam; Hadis-hadis Bermasalah; dan Hadis-hadis Palsu Seputar Ramadan. Ali Mustafa Yakub deepen the study of Hadith in Majors interpret the Hadith of University of King Saud, Riyad. Over there he learn to one or the other of moslem scholar and contemporary thinker Hadith, Muhammad Mustafa Azami and finish the S2 (Master) over there in the year 1985. Important role of Ali Mustafa Yakub in domain of ulum al-hadith in fatherland is try to develop the thought knowledge in ulum al-hadith and cope to do the defence from attack of pure orientalist and rationalist. It is true is not found by original something that in its thought at this problem besides maximal effort translate and comment the thought and result of its teacher study is Muhammad Mustafa Azami about ulum al-hadith. But that way, for that what he was doing Indonesia society represent the big share which can open the knowledge think all Islam studies generally and the study of ulum al-hadith specially. So that with the its articles attendance, both for having the character of translation and also own its masterpiece progressively enrich the ulum al-hadith in Indonesia. To in this time, he can be viewed as a most senior in the study of Hadith in Indonesia.
Agree or not, with his thought which they open, but they have done his the effort in developing the study of Hadith in Indonesia.

J. Contribution of society organization of Islam and Fatwa Institute
In Indonesia, there are a number of Islamic society organization and institute the religious advices, like Nahdhatul Ulama, Muhammadiyah, Persatuan Islam (Islam Association), Al-Washliyah, and MUI Center and also MUI of province. Seems, Islamic society organization which the greates a lot of giving attention to Hadith is Muhammadiyah and Persis. Previous, Muhammadiyah own the elementary paradigm of its tarjih to Alquran and Hadith sahih. Then, now all that paradigm turn into the Alquran and Sunnah maqbulah. Sunah Maqbulah means the Hadith which sahih and hasan. Thereby, Muhammadiyah accept the Hadith sahih and Hadith hasan as theorem punish its the tarjih. But that way, Gathering of Decision of Tarjih Muhammadiyah holding that old paradigm in the reality not only contain the Hadith sahih, but also Hadith hasan and daif. This matter is proven from research of thesis in Post Graduate Program (PPS) of the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta.
Thesis research entitling, Hadis-hadis Nabi dalam Himounan Putusan Tarjih Muhammadiyah (Sebuah Upaya Purifikasi Hadis-hadis Nabi) by Drs. Chudhori in the year 1988 taking 50 Hadith from 172 Hadith loaded in the HPT or 29 % as sample. Pursuant to research of sanad, from 50 the Hadith sample in the reality 15 ( 30 %) its sanad is sahih, 19 ( 38 %) is hasan, and 16 ( 32 %) Hadith its sanad is daif. Even, 29 Hadith ( 58 %) its editor differ from original source editor of Hadith.[5]
This matter don’t have to be made a base adjudg the weak HPT Muhammadiyah. Cause, however, assessment to Hadith is not duration is equal among moslem scholar. Cause, assessment to a just trasmitter also always differ. A critic assess him siqah (truster) , other assess him daif (weak), while onother assess him saduq (downright). First assessment yield the history which sahih, assessment secondly become weak, and last assessment yield the history hasan. However, however this research represent the indication for compulsion of improvement of SDM Muhammadiyah of the study of Hadith, peculiarly in its research area.
Persis is Islam organization having a purpose fundamental to apply the Islam law of pursuant to Alquran and Hadith. Persis have the Council Hisbah managing stipulating punish is equal to Majlis Tarjih among Muhammadiyah and Council of Religious advices among Al-Washliyah. Persis base the its religious understanding to Alquran and Hadith directly and refuse the taklid. Its struggle to return to Alquran and Sunnah very great so that always oppose with the understanding of majority of Islam people which have Syafii School.
After taking place the more or less century half, among Persis looked to be have emerged the awareness of research to return about its law thought go into effect since the old because is sometime seen by the existence of weakness about Hadith. For example, a number of Hadiths- about badal haji, that is may him others of child pilgrimage to Mecca (the haji) on behalf of its parent. Those Hadiths even also history in Shahih al-Bukhari and clear of sahih its sanad, but its matan assessed by the daif because opposing against sentence of Alquran of letter an-Najm, sentence 39 meaning that somebody do not get the (reward), except what labouring of own.[6] On September, 2000 Persis perform its conference to evaluate the thought of terse but in the effort harmonizing that meaning Hadith with the the sentence. Because, majority of moslem scholar of Hadith do the compromise between the Hadith sentence and with looking into that sentence have the character of the common is Hadith have the character of special. But that way, Persis also insuffiency still SDM (human resources) for the application of its goals because of till in this time Persis only own one who have education of S3 (doctor) about Hadith, that is Dr. Abdurrahman.
Obsession to return to Alquran and Hadith by some of this Islamic organization is very laudable and it is true that's which ought to. However, that effort is sometime collided by less be available of really SDM (human resources) have competence to do the that great work.
This is fact of Hadith and ulum al-hadith in Indonesia. See the conditional of the Islam people in Indonesia, it is true this fact is perceivable. Because, Moslem of Indonesia all the time embrace the sect and until se compose the majority of Syafii school. In consequence also, Islamic organizations, like NU, Al-Washliyah, Al-Ittihadiyah, Mathla`Ul Anwar embrace mazhab. Mazhab follower mean to follow the thought which muktamad in mazhab. Thought of Imam or sect trusted by have had the theorem from Alquran and Hadith. In consequence, research to punish a period to enough by nas is which is there are in books of mazhab which trust tar, needn't trace it until to Alquran and Hadith. This situation have sticked at Moslem of Indonesia since centuries so that SDM in of the study of Hadith critically less be made available.
But that way, effort the study of Hadith, such as those which is done by Muhammadiyah, Persis, and some figures, like Ahmad Hasan, Prof.Dr.Hasbi Ash-Shiddiqy, Prof.Dr.Syuhudi Ismail can be said as step of start of developtmen in the study of Hadith in Indonesia. Quit of agree or not with the understanding Muhammadiyah and Persis, spirit of second job of this Islamic organization have given the contribution at development in the study of Hadith in Indonesia. They have begun to discourse about Hadith, is Islamic organization of other; dissimilar a lot of partaking to converse about Hadith. However, the study of Hadith by second of this Islamic organization still be limited to remember the finite its SDM (human resource)
The above is true situation of Hadith to the last in the year 1980. But so now grateful proper Indonesia because since year 90 visible the study of Hadith start to writhe bornedly it doctor of Hadith of product of Post Graduate Program (PPS) of the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN). Though with the limitation of experience and literature, they have started to develop the study of Hadith, incoming in IAIN-SU. To program the S1 majors Interpret the Hadith have been opened of Tafsir and Hadith in some Ushuluddin Faculties IAIN-SU and it have producted a number of its scholar. To program the S2, PPS IAIN-SU have yielded the thesis of Master about Hadith.
So the polemical about Hadith between Sunni and Syiah partake the motivate of studying Hadith in Indonesia. This polemic have jetty from criticism Abu Hurairah, az-Zuhri and Hadith antum a`lamu bi umur dunyakum in book of Islam Aktual by Jalaluddin Rakhmat, report of Panji Masyarakat No. 690 about "Criticism Hadith", and Studi Kritis Sejarah rasulullah written by writer which doesn’t mention its name. As react to born the book Kritik Hadis cendekiawan Dijawab Santri by Ahmad Husnan. As its answer, emerge also book in Reply To "Santri" Menanggapai Tanggapan Atas Buku Islam Aktual. by of Agus Efendi.
Lately emerge also understandings of Inkar sunnah in Indonesia, either through explisit and also inplisit. Inkar Sunnah form this inplisit for example caught from method of understanding of semantics, contextual, and hermeneutic extrem. On the contrary, emerge also in Indonesia understand the stiff salafi and tighten. This understandings possible as influence of me tode West in studying those books who is disagree with epoch development. Meanwhile Alquran and Hadith still be relevant and have owned the method itself.

K. Conclusion
From description in knowable that in history of development of the study of Hadith in Indonesia is found some figures assumed by playing a part in of development in the study of Hadith in Indonesia. Invitation A.Surkati so that returning to Alquran and Sunnah viewed as embryo for development in the study of Hadith in Indonesia. Bravery of Ahmad Hasan in opening different thought with all moslem scholar at that time about Hadith until certain boundary become the motivation to all moslem scholar to study the Hadith. T.M.Hasbi Ash-Shiddieqy very meritorious in performing the Hadith literature and ulum al-hadith in Indonesian. Fatchur Rahman looked into a first person write the complete scheme about research of sanad. Meritorious M.Syuhudi Ismail in developing method of research of Hadith, both from aspect of sanad and also about matan. He also is first writer about dictionary look for the Hadith and understanding contextual to Hadith. Meanwhile, Ali Mustafa Yakub write the defence book to Hadith and introduce a number of Hadith of daif to the public.
But that way, seems discourse Hadith still need the effort larger ones of all moslem scholar and Islam master to pursue the left behind of the study of Hadith in Indonesia in its position as second source in Islam. More than that, the study of Hadith need more serious in face of Inkar Sunnah and criticize the orientalist. Important and so do domination Hadith for Islamic organization and institutes of religious advices so that Hadith taken as its religious advices stipulating theorem is really Hadith which can be justified by its hujjah according to discipline of ulum al-hadith. Others, understanding contextual requires to be done to certain Hadith as according to epoch development non-stoped experience of change.
Condition Hadith like this bring undoubtedly to institutes of Religion education in Indonesia, start from Madrasah and Pesantren until religion college so that revising both curriculum and also syllabus. Curriculum and syllabus during the time in the reality not yet able to supply all student and student to master the Hadith and ulum al-hadith come up with the adequate standard. And so do, pattern of thought attitude and to religion study not yet been supported with the adequate to analysis the study of Hadith. In consequence, development in the study of Hadith in Indonesia represent one planning of national education which require to be studied in more detailed to utilize to find the system and program the more directional Hadith teaching
والله أعلم بالصواب

BIBLIOGRAPHY
A. Hassan, Soal-Jawab tentang Berbagai Masalah Agama (Bandung : CV. Diponegoro, 1988).
Abdul Azizi dkk., Gerakan Islam Kontemporer di Indonesia (Jakarta : Pustaka Firdaus, 1996).
Azyumardi Azra, Kecenderungan Kajian Islam di Indonesia: Studi Tentang Disertasi Doktor Program Pascasarjana IAIN Jakarta (Jakarta : Balai Penelitian IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah, 1997).
,Pendidikan Islam: Tradisi dan Modernisasi Menuju Muillenium Baru, (Jakarta : Logos, 1999).
Bisri Affandi, Syekh Ahmad Surkati (1874-1943) : Pembaharu dan Pemurni Millenium Baru (Jakarta : Pustaka al-Kautsar, 1999).
Chudhori, Hadits-hadits Nabi dalam Himpunan Putusan Tarjih Muhammadiya (Sebuah Upaya Purifikasi Hadits-hadits Nabi), IAIN Sunan Kalijaga, diperbanyak oleh Pimpinan Wilayah Muhammadiyah (Yogyakarta : Majlis Tarjih Jawa Tengah, 1988).
Daftar Judul Disertasi 1983-1999 (Jakarta : Program Pascasarjana IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah, 1999).
Fatcur Rahman, Ikhtishar Mushthalahul Hadits (bandung : PT. Al-Ma’arif, 1987).
Hasil-hasil Sidang Dewan fatwa Al-Jam’iyatul Washliyah 1998.
M.Syuhudi ismail, Metodologi Penelitian Hadith Nabi (Jakarta : Bulan Bintang, 1412 H/1979 M).
Muhammad Hasbi As-Shiddieqy, Pidato Promeovendus pada Upacara Penganugerahan Doktor Honoris Causa dalam Ilmu Syari’ah (Yogyakarta : IAIN Sunan Kalijaga, 1975).

[1]Azyumardi Azra, Kecenderungan Kajian Islam di Indonesia: Studi tentang Disertasi Doktor Program Pascasarjana IAIN Jakarta, (Jakarta : Balai Penelitian IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah, 1997), h. 23-24.
[2]See : Daftar Judul Disertasi 1983-1999, Program Pascasarjana IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, 1999.
[3]Bisri Affandi, Syekh Ahmad Surkati (1874-1943) : Pembaharu dan Pemurni Islam di Indonesia, (Jakarta : Pustaka al-kautsar, 1999), h. 93.
[4]Ahmad Hasan, Soal Jawab tentang Bebagai Masalah Agama, Jilid I, (Bandung : CV.Diponegoro,1988), h. 16.
[5] Cgudhori, Hadits-hadits Nabi dalam Himpunan, Putusan Tarjih Muhammadiyah (Sebuah Upaya Purifikasi Hadis-hadis Nabi), IAIN Sunan Kalijaga, diperbanyak oleh Pimpinan Wilayah Muhammadiyah, Majlis Tarjih Jawa Tengah, Yogyakarta, 1988. h. 297-300.
[6]Ahmad Hasan, Soal Jawab tentang Bebagai Masalah Agama, Jilid I, (Bandung : CV.Diponegoro,1988), h. 240-242

1 komentar:

Anonim mengatakan...

Just want to say what a great blog you got here!
I've been around for quite a lot of time, but finally decided to show my appreciation of your work!

Thumbs up, and keep it going!

Cheers
Christian, iwspo.net